R - Built In Datasets

Introduction

R provides several built in data sets. They have reasonable size and accuracy and help us in rapid prototyping and also in using standard values in regular code
DatasetContents
AirPassengersMonthly Airline Passenger Numbers 1949-1960
BJsalesSales Data with Leading Indicator
BJsales.lead (BJsales)Sales Data with Leading Indicator
BODBiochemical Oxygen Demand
CO2Carbon Dioxide Uptake in Grass Plants
ChickWeightWeight versus age of chicks on different diets
DNaseElisa assay of DNase
EuStockMarketsDaily Closing Prices of Major European Stock Indices, 1991-1998
FormaldehydeDetermination of Formaldehyde
HairEyeColorHair and Eye Color of Statistics Students
Harman23.corHarman Example 2.3
Harman74.corHarman Example 7.4
IndomethPharmacokinetics of Indomethacin
InsectSpraysEffectiveness of Insect Sprays
JohnsonJohnsonQuarterly Earnings per Johnson & Johnson Share
LakeHuronLevel of Lake Huron 1875-1972
LifeCycleSavingsIntercountry Life-Cycle Savings Data
LoblollyGrowth of Loblolly pine trees
NileFlow of the River Nile
OrangeGrowth of Orange Trees
OrchardSpraysPotency of Orchard Sprays
PlantGrowthResults from an Experiment on Plant Growth
PuromycinReaction Velocity of an Enzymatic Reaction
SeatbeltsRoad Casualties in Great Britain 1969-84
TheophPharmacokinetics of Theophylline
TitanicSurvival of passengers on the Titanic
ToothGrowthThe Effect of Vitamin C on Tooth Growth in Guinea Pigs
UCBAdmissionsStudent Admissions at UC Berkeley
UKDriverDeathsRoad Casualties in Great Britain 1969-84
UKgasUK Quarterly Gas Consumption
USAccDeathsAccidental Deaths in the US 1973-1978
USArrestsViolent Crime Rates by US State
USJudgeRatingsLawyers' Ratings of State Judges in the US Superior Court
USPersonalExpenditurePersonal Expenditure Data
UScitiesDDistances Between European Cities and Between US Cities
VADeathsDeath Rates in Virginia (1940)
WWWusageInternet Usage per Minute
WorldPhonesThe World's Telephones
ability.covAbility and Intelligence Tests
airmilesPassenger Miles on Commercial US Airlines, 1937-1960
airqualityNew York Air Quality Measurements
anscombeAnscombe's Quartet of 'Identical' Simple Linear Regressions
attenuThe Joyner-Boore Attenuation Data
attitudeThe Chatterjee-Price Attitude Data
austresQuarterly Time Series of the Number of Australian Residents
beaver1 (beavers)Body Temperature Series of Two Beavers
beaver2 (beavers)Body Temperature Series of Two Beavers
carsSpeed and Stopping Distances of Cars
chickwtsChicken Weights by Feed Type
co2Mauna Loa Atmospheric CO2 Concentration
crimtabStudent's 3000 Criminals Data
discoveriesYearly Numbers of Important Discoveries
esophSmoking, Alcohol and (O)esophageal Cancer
euroConversion Rates of Euro Currencies
euro.cross (euro)Conversion Rates of Euro Currencies
eurodistDistances Between European Cities and Between US Cities
faithfulOld Faithful Geyser Data
fdeaths (UKLungDeaths)Monthly Deaths from Lung Diseases in the UK
freenyFreeny's Revenue Data
freeny.x (freeny)Freeny's Revenue Data
freeny.y (freeny)Freeny's Revenue Data
infertInfertility after Spontaneous and Induced Abortion
irisEdgar Anderson's Iris Data
iris3Edgar Anderson's Iris Data
islandsAreas of the World's Major Landmasses
ldeaths (UKLungDeaths)Monthly Deaths from Lung Diseases in the UK
lhLuteinizing Hormone in Blood Samples
longleyLongley's Economic Regression Data
lynxAnnual Canadian Lynx trappings 1821-1934
mdeaths (UKLungDeaths)Monthly Deaths from Lung Diseases in the UK
morleyMichelson Speed of Light Data
mtcarsMotor Trend Car Road Tests
nhtempAverage Yearly Temperatures in New Haven
nottemAverage Monthly Temperatures at Nottingham, 1920-1939
npkClassical N, P, K Factorial Experiment
occupationalStatusOccupational Status of Fathers and their Sons
precipAnnual Precipitation in US Cities
presidentsQuarterly Approval Ratings of US Presidents
pressureVapor Pressure of Mercury as a Function of Temperature
quakesLocations of Earthquakes off Fiji
randuRandom Numbers from Congruential Generator RANDU
riversLengths of Major North American Rivers
rockMeasurements on Petroleum Rock Samples
sleepStudent's Sleep Data
stack.loss (stackloss)Brownlee's Stack Loss Plant Data
stack.x (stackloss)Brownlee's Stack Loss Plant Data
stacklossBrownlee's Stack Loss Plant Data
state.abb (state)US State Facts and Figures
state.area (state)US State Facts and Figures
state.center (state)US State Facts and Figures
state.division (state)US State Facts and Figures
state.name (state)US State Facts and Figures
state.region (state)US State Facts and Figures
state.x77 (state)US State Facts and Figures
sunspot.monthMonthly Sunspot Data, from 1749 to "Present"
sunspot.yearYearly Sunspot Data, 1700-1988
sunspotsMonthly Sunspot Numbers, 1749-1983
swissSwiss Fertility and Socioeconomic Indicators (1888) Data
treeringYearly Treering Data, -6000-1979
treesGirth, Height and Volume for Black Cherry Trees
uspopPopulations Recorded by the US Census
volcanoTopographic Information on Auckland's Maunga Whau Volcano
warpbreaksThe Number of Breaks in Yarn during Weaving
womenAverage Heights and Weights for American Women

R provides these datasets in form of Data Frames. Here are a few examples
> state.abb
 [1] "AL" "AK" "AZ" "AR" "CA" "CO" "CT" "DE" "FL" "GA" "HI" "ID" "IL" "IN" "IA" "KS" "KY" "LA" "ME" "MD" "MA" "MI" "MN" "MS" "MO" "MT" "NE" "NV" "NH"
[30] "NJ" "NM" "NY" "NC" "ND" "OH" "OK" "OR" "PA" "RI" "SC" "SD" "TN" "TX" "UT" "VT" "VA" "WA" "WV" "WI" "WY"
> state.area
 [1]  51609 589757 113909  53104 158693 104247   5009   2057  58560  58876   6450  83557  56400  36291  56290  82264  40395  48523  33215  10577   8257
[22]  58216  84068  47716  69686 147138  77227 110540   9304   7836 121666  49576  52586  70665  41222  69919  96981  45333   1214  31055  77047  42244
[43] 267339  84916   9609  40815  68192  24181  56154  97914
> 
> WorldPhones
     N.Amer Europe Asia S.Amer Oceania Africa Mid.Amer
1951  45939  21574 2876   1815    1646     89      555
1956  60423  29990 4708   2568    2366   1411      733
1957  64721  32510 5230   2695    2526   1546      773
1958  68484  35218 6662   2845    2691   1663      836
1959  71799  37598 6856   3000    2868   1769      911
1960  76036  40341 8220   3145    3054   1905     1008
1961  79831  43173 9053   3338    3224   2005     1076
> 
> head(state.x77)
           Population Income Illiteracy Life Exp Murder HS Grad Frost   Area
Alabama          3615   3624        2.1    69.05   15.1    41.3    20  50708
Alaska            365   6315        1.5    69.31   11.3    66.7   152 566432
Arizona          2212   4530        1.8    70.55    7.8    58.1    15 113417
Arkansas         2110   3378        1.9    70.66   10.1    39.9    65  51945
California      21198   5114        1.1    71.71   10.3    62.6    20 156361
Colorado         2541   4884        0.7    72.06    6.8    63.9   166 103766
You also have some utility vectors like
> letters
 [1] "a" "b" "c" "d" "e" "f" "g" "h" "i" "j" "k" "l" "m" "n" "o" "p" "q" "r" "s" "t" "u" "v" "w" "x" "y" "z"
>
Just another feather in your hat!

References

If you are interested in going deeper, check out this video tutorial on YouTube.
If you like books, check this out.